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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more common in women of childbearing age, while late-onset SLE (ltSLE) is more prevalent among males. In older patients, the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric SLE is challenging due to polypharmacy and multiple comorbid conditions affecting the central nervous system.
Some models have been developed previously for the attribution of neurological symptoms to SLE; however, they lack specificity to ltSLE patients. Pamuk et al.1 recently conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, published in Rheumatology, to evaluate the frequency and specific clinical manifestations of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) in older patients with SLE. Here, we summarize the key points below.
Figure 1. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in early- vs late-onset SLE*
Anti-dsDNA, anti-double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid; Anti-Sm, anti-Smith; Anti-SS-A, Anti-Sjogren's Syndrome; CI, confidence interval; eSLE, early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus; LN, lupus nephritis; ltSLE, late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus; NPSLE, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus; PNP, peripheral neuropathy; OR, odds ratio; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
*Data from Pamuk, et al.1
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